AVR – 01.5: What and When, extensive coverage


In my last post, I just breezed over what a Micro-Controller (herein after referred to as uC ) and an AVR really is, so here it goes, my take at explaining them…. (I will try to copy as much from Wikipedia as possible and then mix it with my own understandings)

Micro-Controller (uC)

A uC is a small computer, usually sized to fit on a small chip, it can be programmed, it can take inputs and it can give outputs after working on that input, similar to what computers do already. The way they differ is that uC  provide an easy way to implement any kind of  electronic solution while maintaining flexibility, speed and accuracy. uC are a simpler form of the modern day processor (which goes in the motherboard, think Intel and AMD), it works on smaller numbers, it has much (read too much) slower speed as compared to its modern counterpart (i7).

A typical uC can be programmed, given instructions to, which it follows when working on data inputs, a uC works primarily on digital signals and logics. Continue reading AVR – 01.5: What and When, extensive coverage

AVR – 01: What, Why, When, Who



AVR is a microcontroller (uC) from Atmel, it has 8-bit architecture which means that what you can store in it has to be somewhat compatible to 8 bits (1 byte) of memory. AVRs are a family of uC which are relatively easy to get the hang on and are quite commonly available having the advantage of not being expensive. GREAT FOR BEGINNERS, like me….

AVRs come in many sizes and forms and are divided into sub-families depending on the features they have. Oh! and let me be clear on one thing that AVR does not stand for anything in particular, its creators just didn’t think of anything except calling it AVR.


AVRs or for that matter any other uC can be used in any circuit where some kind of automation is required. any TTL circuit can be automated and enhanced by the use of uC. AVRs with their great range of features make it very easy to do a multitude of things without doing much.

Update: Extensive Coverage of Micro-Controllers and AVR hereContinue reading AVR – 01: What, Why, When, Who

The Ground Problem

Different Symbols - Left-to-right - Earth Ground - Chassis Ground - Signal Ground

Today I was searching about how to breadboard on MultiSim, found many tutorials on the topic, but in one, I found this amazing little concept, explained, once and for all……

The copy of the text is;

The Concept of a Ground
Nevertheless, this simple circuit does introduce a very powerful concept.  Notice that we did not place a ground on the breadboard and no error occurred. Hopefully, this rather subtle point help clarifies the concept of a ground: it is just a symbol on your circuit that indicates your reference node.  A circuit does not need to have an explicit ground connection to Earth (unless you are dealing with very high voltages and want to provide a safe return path). Many circuits do not have any explicit ground connection to Earth.

Continue reading The Ground Problem