Voltage Indicator [Project]

We were required to make sort of a final project for the first year of our studies as the year came to an end, the project was for the subject of PCB Manufacturing, so more emphasis on design of PCB than on the electronics was needed. While some of my friends did made exceptional (and complex) projects (I might posts pics and videos later), I picked a much simpler task; a Voltage Indicator Circuit, using only Discrete Components.

A Voltage Indicator is a simple circuit which indicates voltage either by showing the actual voltage value or providing visual indication of the applied voltage, the first step was to lookup on Google but most of the circuits available used ICs (Op-Amps) and they themselves required a battery to be operated.

Voltage Indicator - Block
Basic Circuit Block
Voltage Indicator - 5V Indicator
Voltage Indicator – 5V Indicator

So, after discussing with some friends and thinking of a more simpler solution, I (+ a friend) came up with a very Simple Voltage Indicator circuit, using ONLY Dirscrete Components, it doesn’t need a battery to be operated and can be made to show either a single voltage or a voltage range, the actual circuit is a simple block consisting of a Resistor, a Zener Diode and an LED. The more blocks you attach together the more range you will get.

Possible Application: I thought it would be best used as a simple battery voltage indicator on battery operated circuits, as this can be easily hooked up to the battery of a circuit with a SPDT switch; flipping the switch will indicate the battery volatge.

Voltage Indicator - 12V Battery Checker
Voltage Indicator – 12V Battery Checker

Continue reading Voltage Indicator [Project]

Benefits of SSL – a.k.a. Encryption

Here in Pakistan(especially) and generally all over the world, people crave free Internet and get online anywhere anytime on anyone’s machine or network when they are offered free Internet. This applies to those free Wifi stalkers as well, who just roam around with their laptops looking for a free Wifi network, I just want to say this to these people YOU SHOULD KNOW BETTER.

I for one, am paranoid about my belongings and my presence on the web and I try my best not to login from any computer but mine I don’t even use the Internet from my Institute’s computers, cause if I start here telling you what can be done and what could have been done with your credentials which you just gave away when using someone else’s network or computer to access the Internet you would wish you had an UNDO button. If you are using a NON-ENCRYPTED connection to a website, all information which flows to and fro between you and the website is open for anyone in-between the link to intercept and store without your knowledge. Continue reading Benefits of SSL – a.k.a. Encryption

Hello world!


I know and not know MANY THINGS… This blog is my home on the Interwebs, here; I will be writing about the stuff I will be doing regarding my studies and freelancing. I will also be sharing Diggablle things here which I may find when wandering the vast distances of Internet.

In the end this is my personal blog, I will try to spread the knowledge which I know, but please do your own research before following anything I  say, as I may be wrong (most of the time, I am wrong), but when I am right I will surely be of great help to you.

AVR – 02: Recognizing that 40 legged thing called AVR

Ok, so here goes, this is what an AVR ATMega32 looks like:

ATmega32 DIP 40-pin package from Atmel

I have this one and I will be using this in most of the things I am gonna do and put up here.

This particular packaging is called DIP(Dual In-line Package), this one has 40 pins and the numbering starts from the arrow at the top left and ends to the right of the arrow, now I am gonna copy some characteristics off of its datasheet, which you can download from the Atmel site. Continue reading AVR – 02: Recognizing that 40 legged thing called AVR

AVR – 01.5: What and When, extensive coverage


In my last post, I just breezed over what a Micro-Controller (herein after referred to as uC ) and an AVR really is, so here it goes, my take at explaining them…. (I will try to copy as much from Wikipedia as possible and then mix it with my own understandings)

Micro-Controller (uC)

A uC is a small computer, usually sized to fit on a small chip, it can be programmed, it can take inputs and it can give outputs after working on that input, similar to what computers do already. The way they differ is that uC  provide an easy way to implement any kind of  electronic solution while maintaining flexibility, speed and accuracy. uC are a simpler form of the modern day processor (which goes in the motherboard, think Intel and AMD), it works on smaller numbers, it has much (read too much) slower speed as compared to its modern counterpart (i7).

A typical uC can be programmed, given instructions to, which it follows when working on data inputs, a uC works primarily on digital signals and logics. Continue reading AVR – 01.5: What and When, extensive coverage