Benefits of SSL – a.k.a. Encryption

Here in Pakistan(especially) and generally all over the world, people crave free Internet and get online anywhere anytime on anyone’s machine or network when they are offered free Internet. This applies to those free Wifi stalkers as well, who just roam around with their laptops looking for a free Wifi network, I just want to say this to these people YOU SHOULD KNOW BETTER.

I for one, am paranoid about my belongings and my presence on the web and I try my best not to login from any computer but mine I don’t even use the Internet from my Institute’s computers, cause if I start here telling you what can be done and what could have been done with your credentials which you just gave away when using someone else’s network or computer to access the Internet you would wish you had an UNDO button. If you are using a NON-ENCRYPTED connection to a website, all information which flows to and fro between you and the website is open for anyone in-between the link to intercept and store without your knowledge. Continue reading Benefits of SSL – a.k.a. Encryption

AVR – 02: Recognizing that 40 legged thing called AVR

Ok, so here goes, this is what an AVR ATMega32 looks like:

ATmega32 DIP 40-pin package from Atmel

I have this one and I will be using this in most of the things I am gonna do and put up here.

This particular packaging is called DIP(Dual In-line Package), this one has 40 pins and the numbering starts from the arrow at the top left and ends to the right of the arrow, now I am gonna copy some characteristics off of its datasheet, which you can download from the Atmel site. Continue reading AVR – 02: Recognizing that 40 legged thing called AVR

AVR – 01.5: What and When, extensive coverage


In my last post, I just breezed over what a Micro-Controller (herein after referred to as uC ) and an AVR really is, so here it goes, my take at explaining them…. (I will try to copy as much from Wikipedia as possible and then mix it with my own understandings)

Micro-Controller (uC)

A uC is a small computer, usually sized to fit on a small chip, it can be programmed, it can take inputs and it can give outputs after working on that input, similar to what computers do already. The way they differ is that uC  provide an easy way to implement any kind of  electronic solution while maintaining flexibility, speed and accuracy. uC are a simpler form of the modern day processor (which goes in the motherboard, think Intel and AMD), it works on smaller numbers, it has much (read too much) slower speed as compared to its modern counterpart (i7).

A typical uC can be programmed, given instructions to, which it follows when working on data inputs, a uC works primarily on digital signals and logics. Continue reading AVR – 01.5: What and When, extensive coverage

AVR – 01: What, Why, When, Who



AVR is a microcontroller (uC) from Atmel, it has 8-bit architecture which means that what you can store in it has to be somewhat compatible to 8 bits (1 byte) of memory. AVRs are a family of uC which are relatively easy to get the hang on and are quite commonly available having the advantage of not being expensive. GREAT FOR BEGINNERS, like me….

AVRs come in many sizes and forms and are divided into sub-families depending on the features they have. Oh! and let me be clear on one thing that AVR does not stand for anything in particular, its creators just didn’t think of anything except calling it AVR.


AVRs or for that matter any other uC can be used in any circuit where some kind of automation is required. any TTL circuit can be automated and enhanced by the use of uC. AVRs with their great range of features make it very easy to do a multitude of things without doing much.

Update: Extensive Coverage of Micro-Controllers and AVR hereContinue reading AVR – 01: What, Why, When, Who

The Ground Problem

Different Symbols - Left-to-right - Earth Ground - Chassis Ground - Signal Ground

Today I was searching about how to breadboard on MultiSim, found many tutorials on the topic, but in one, I found this amazing little concept, explained, once and for all……

The copy of the text is;

The Concept of a Ground
Nevertheless, this simple circuit does introduce a very powerful concept.  Notice that we did not place a ground on the breadboard and no error occurred. Hopefully, this rather subtle point help clarifies the concept of a ground: it is just a symbol on your circuit that indicates your reference node.  A circuit does not need to have an explicit ground connection to Earth (unless you are dealing with very high voltages and want to provide a safe return path). Many circuits do not have any explicit ground connection to Earth.

Continue reading The Ground Problem